Die Design Fundamentals by Paquin - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. uytty. a step-by-step introduction to the design of stamping dies including material, punches, die sets, stops, strippers, gages, pilots, and presses. Dies (Metal-working), Problems, exercises, Punching machinery. TSP3 Die Design Fundamentals by J.R. Paquin, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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He was formerly Tool and Die Designer for such companies as Republic Aircraft Corp., J.R. Paquin Cleve lan d, Ohio july, vi Contents Section Page 1. Die Design Fundamentals 3RD EDITION by J. R. Paquin, Vukota Boljanovic and Fundamentals 3RD Edition by Vukota, and J.R. Paquin Boljanovic Free PDF. Vukota Boljanovic, J R Paquin, Robert E Crowley Die Design Fundamentals, Third Edition provides balanced coverage of relevant fundamentals and real- world practices Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design (CD-ROM in PDF).
It may be a blue- print, or quite often it is a blue and white ozalid print. Therefore, in designing a die for producing a stamping, e die designer works from a part print.
Processing Following is the sequence of operations or proced- ure followed in processing a stamping through the plan- ning stages. Substantially the same series of steps would be taken in any large or medium-size manufactur- ing plant. After a product designer had prepared layouts and assembly drawings of the product to be manufactured, the engineering department would prepare detail draw- ings of each individual component which the shop would have to produce.
These contain all required views, dimensions, and explanatory notes to represent all detail features of the objects. Prints of these detail drawings are sent to the pro- cess planning or processing department. When stamp- ings are required, it is the function of the men of this department to determine how the stampings are to be made. They decide how many operations will be re- quired and what presses will be employed to make them.
This department thus assumes the responsibility of determining the sequence of manufacturing opera- - 10 tions. The information is noted on a form called a route sheet. CAP 5CR. JJ2 STD. DOWEL Ya DIA. Ys x 1'4 x8Ya 13 2. A typical bill of material.
However, the following are usually included: The Heading. This is located at the top of the sheet and it contains the following information: In addition, the product name and model number may be included 2. The number of each operation required to make and inspect the part. Numbers are most frequently list- ed in increments of 5, as 5, 10, 15, 20, etc.
The name of each operation 4. The name and numberof the machine in which the operation is to be performed 5. Estimates of the number of parts which will be completed per hour for every operation.
These esti- mates are altered after production rates have been measured accurately by the time study department. Route sheets are supplied to the following departments: Tool design department Production department Inspection department.
Of course, any machine or product will contain many components which have been standardized and which can be downloadd from outside suppliers or vendors. Such items would include screws and dowels, bearings, clutches, motors, and many more. The downloading de- partment would be supplied with a bill of material, and download orders would be issued for all parts to be bought. Number of each operation 2. Name of each operation 3. Machine data 4. List of all standard and special tools required for the job 5.
Names and numbers of all special tools which are to be designed and built. These numbers are marked on tool drawings and later stamped or marked on the actual tools for identification. Tool operation sheets are helpful in planning and developing a tooling program. Copies go to the tool de- s igners and to the tool downloading department. Before proceeding further, study carefully the tool operation sheet illustrated.
One is written for each die or special tool required and the information is taken from the route sheet. J'lg Cover NO. A typical route sheet. Following is a list of the information usually given on a design order. Department name 2. Tool name 3. Date 4. Tool number 5. Part name 6. Part number 7. Operation 8.
Machine in which tool. Department in which machine is located Number of parts to be made. After the die has been built they will inspect it to make certain that it was constructed to specifications given in the tool print.
When the die is built by an outside tool shop, it is inspected by the tool inspection department upon de- livery and the same inspection procedures are followed to determine if stampings produced by it are held to tolerances specified on the part print. The set-up man for that department installs it in the press where it will be operated and he produces a few parts under the same conditions in which the die will run in actual produc- tion.
These parts are taken to the production inspection department. There, they are inspected to determine whether or not sizes have been held to tolerances specified on the part print. After the production inspection department has de- termined that the samples are satisfactory, a form is issued and signed by the chief inspector authorizing production with the die.
A typical tool operation sheet. A typical design order. Production orders 5pecify how many parts are to be run, when they will be required, and where they are to be delivered. After a new die has been in production for a few hours or so and it is found to perform satisfactorily, the order which was issued to the tool-room to build the die is closed and no more time may be charged against it. In this connection it is interesting to note that records are kept of all time devoted to designing, building, inspecting, and trying out the die in order to determine the actual tool cost, illustrating perfectly that "time is money.
It is now possible to list all the items which will be re- quired before he can begin designing intelligently. They are: The part print 2. The operation sheet, or route sheet 3.
The design order 4. A press data sheet. In addition, he may have a reference drawing of a die similar to the one he is to design or a sketch of a proposed design prepared by the chief tool designer or group leader suggesting a possible approach to solu- tion of the problem. Let us consider further the informa- tion required: Part Print. The part drawing gives all necessary dimensions and notes. Any missing dimension must be obtained from the product design department before work can proceed.
Operation Sheet. The operation sheet or route sheet must be studied to determine exactly what operations were performed upon the workpiece previously. This is very important. When the views of the stamping are laid out, any cuts which were applied in a previous operation must be shown. The Design Order.
This must be studied very care- fully because it specifies the type of die to be de- signed. Consider particularly the operation to be per- formed, the press in which the die is to be installed, and the number of parts expected to be stamped by the die.
The latter will establish the class of die to be designed. The Machine Data Sheet. The die to be designed must fit into a particular press and it is important to know what space is available to receive it and what interferences may be present. In time you will come to realit'le the importance of careful and repeated study of the part print, operation sheet, and design order because there can be no devia- tion from the specifications given. DRAWING If the information on a drawing is complete, concise, and presented in the simplest possible manner, the die maker can work to best advantage.
The first step in originating plans for a new die is the preparation of a sketch or sketches of significant features of the pro- posed die. These will become a guide for beginning the actual full-size layout on tracing paper.
However, 13 it is a mistake to spend too much time in this phase of the work or to try to develop the entire design in sketch form because then decisions can become too arbitrary and inflexible.
Always keep your mind open to possible improvements as you develop the design in layout form. Often the first idea proves entirely impractical and another method of operation must be substituted.
Before beginning the sketch, place the part print, operation sheet, and design order before you on the drawing table.
The three must be studied together so that a complete and exact understanding of the problem will be realized. This study will form the basis for the creation of a mental picture of a tool suitable for per- forming the operations - one which will meet every requirement.
The sketch you make may be a very simple one for simple operations or it may be more elaborate. In fact, a number of sketches may be required for more complex operations and intricate designs. In any event, the sketch will clarify your ideas before a formal layout is attempted. In addition, it will form the basis for a realistic estimate of the size of the finished die so that you may select the proper sheet size for the layout.
In the layout stage, no dimensions are applied and neither is the bill of material nor the record strip filled out. After the die has been laid out, the steps necessary for completing the set of working drawings are more or less routine. A properly prepared assembly drawing contains six general features: All views required for showing the contour of every component including the workpiece 2. All assembly dimensi ons. These are dimensions which will be required for assembling the parts and those for machining operaf ms to be performed after assembly 3.
All explanatory notes 4. Finish marks and grind marks to indicate those surfaces to be machined after assembly 5. A bill of material listing sizes, downloadd com- ponents, materials, and number required for all parts 6. A title block and record strip with identifying information noted properly. Detail drawings are drawings of individual com- ponents and they contain all dimensions , notes, and supplementary information so that each part can be made without reference to the assembly drawing or to other detail drawings.
Such information usually in- cludes ten distinct elements: All views required for identifying every detail of the part must be drawn 2. Every dimension needed for making the part must be given 14 3. CHECKING After a set of drawings has been completed and the designer has reviewed them for possible omissions or errors, they are turned over to the group leader who will bring them to the checker to be checked.
Accom- panying them will be the design order, part print, and any notes or sketches which may have accompanied them when the designer received the job. The checker will require all these in order to do his work properly.
The checker will first study the operation of the die to make sure that it will function properly and that its cost will not be excessive for the work it is to per- form. After he is satisfied that it has been designed properly, he will check every dimension, note, and specification for accuracy. This is a blue and white print having blue lines and a white background. With a yellow crayon, he will cover with yellow color every dimension he finds to be accurate, and with a red crayon he will cover with red color every dimension he finds to be 0 wrong.
Above or to the side he will write the correct dimen- sion in red. The tracings, along with the check prints, are then returned to the designer for correction. Incorrect dimen- sions are carefully erased to remove all graphite from the paper. An erasing shield is ordinarily used to pre- vent smudging of other dimensions or lines.
Correct di mensions are then lettered in place. After the tracings have been corrected, they are re- turned to the checker and he checks the job again to make sure that no correction was overlooked. He then signs the drawing in the space provided and enters the date the drawing was checked. After drawings have been completed and checked, they must be approved by the chief designer, chief tool engineer, or possibly the plant superintendent and others who are held responsible by the management for the cost and quality of dies used in the plant.
Usually, these approvals are routine after drawings have been approved by the checker. However, it may sometimes happen that someone will refuse to sign because he may feel that the die will not work as well as expected, will not deliver the number of parts required per day, will be too expensive to lmild, or for some other rea- son.
If he convinces the others that his objections are valid, the drawings will have to be altered or a new design begun, depending upon the extent of the changes to be made. A small print is taken of the bill of material only.
This is sent to the stock cutting department where steel is stored and cut as required. The stock cutter goes over the list, selects bars of proper thickness and width, or diameter, and saws them to the lengths specified for each item listed.
These cut blocks and plates are placed in a pan, along with screws, dowels, and other parts which are kept in stock. When downloadd components are delivered to the plant, they are also placed in the pan. Finally, the pan contains a set of die prints and a part print and it is delivered to the tool-roam where the tool-roam foreman turns it over to the die maker who will build the die. One of the prints is sent to the downloading depart- ment.
There, orders are written to authorize download of all components which will enter into building the die. If the entire die is to be built by an outside tool shop, a download order is sent to them. In addition, requisitions are made out for the following: Standard parts or assemblies which are not kept in stock and which must be downloadd 2. Castings, forgings, or weldments required for construction of the die 3. Steels of special analysis not carried in stock 4.
Special sizes of steels or other materials not stocked. The downloading agent must plan for delivery of all these components before the date set for beginning construction of the die. File cards are then made out for the drawings and they are filed away in drawing files. These are usual- ly kept in the tool and die design department, although some plants keep them in a vault. The file cards list the job by name and numb.
This part was produced in a multiple station progressive die in which the operations are done pro- gressively from station to station and a finished part is delivered with every stroke of the press. The design of progressive dies requires a thorough knowledge of die principles.
A designer capable of designing progressive dies is considered one of the top men in the field. This question is asked often and I have prepared the following illustrated list of the twenty types of opera- tions which are performed in dies: Examining a scrap strip. Piercing, embossing, and var- ious other operations may be performed on the strip prior to the blanking station.
Preliminary operations be- ore cutting off include piercing, notching, and emboss-. Although they are relatively simple, many parts can be produced by cut off dies.
It is often impractical to pierce oles while forming or before forming because they ould become distorted in the forming operation. In s uch cases they are pierced in a piercing die after orming. The upper top and the lower bottom portions of a typical progressive die. A blank and the st rip fr om which it has been cut. The result of trimming in a tr imming die.
Holes pierced in a previously drown part. A straight, smooth edge is provided and therefore shaving is fre- quent ly performed on instrument parts, watch and clock parts, and the li ke. Shaving is accomplished in shaving dies es pecially designed for the purpose. These would be broached in a broaching die.
Broaching operations are similar to shaving operations. A series of teeth removes the metal instead of just one tooth as in shaving. Broach- ing must be used when more material is to be removed than could effectively be done with one tooth. The result of shoving in a shavi ng die. Serrations app lied in a broaching die. The seam on this port is done as a secondary operati on in a horn di e.
HORNING Horn dies are provided with an a rbor or horn over which the parts are placed for secondary operations such as seaming, as illustrated. Horn dies may also be used for piercing holes in the sides of shells. Side cams convert the up-and-down motion of the press ram into horizontal or angular motion when it is required in the nature of the work.
A simple bend is one in which the line of bend is straight.
One or more bends may be involved, and bending dies are a large and important class of press tool. The holes are pierced simultaneously in a side com die. Stomping bent in a bending di e. Stomping formed in a forming die. The line of bend is curved instead of straight and the metal is s ubjected to plastic flow or deforma- tion.
DRAWING Drawing dies transform flat sheets of metal into cups, shells, or other drawn shapes by subjecting the material to severe plastic defonnation. Shown in the illustration, a rather deep shell has been drawn from a flat sheet. The curl may be applied over a wire ring for increased strength. You may have s een the tops of sheet metal pails curled in this man- ner. Flat parts may be curled also. A good example 17 Fig. Shell drown from a flat sheet. Lip on thi s drawn shell produced in curling die.
The bulged bottoms of some types of coffee pots are formed in bulging dies. The operation is also called necking. This shows a collapsi ble tube formed and extruded from a solid slug of metal. Bulge in this drawn shell produced in bulging die.
Drown shell that has been swaged. Drawn shell that has been extruded. In coining, the metal is caused to flow into the shape of the die cavity. Coins such as nickels, dimes, and quarters are produced in coining dies.
Cold-formed part in which metal flow is caused by high pressure. A complete part is cut off, at the final sta- tion, with each stroke of the press. The die shown in Fig.
Part and strip produced in a progressive die. Sub presses are special types of die sets used only for such precision work. Typical precision parts produced in sub press dies. Assembly dies Fig.
Part produced in an assembly die. From the foregoing, you can perhaps appreciate what a wide field die design engineering really covers. You must have come to realize that it is indeed a pleasant and interesting occupation, one which will stimulate your mind in much the same manner as working out fascinating puzzles. In addition, you will come to find that is a very profitable one. As you study the sections to follow, you will be introduced, step by step, to the fundamental die com- ponents and you will learn the methods by which die designers assemble these components in designing dies.
When you have completed the book you will know the elements of die design quite thoroughly. Knowledge such as this is well paid for by Industry. You will have acquired the foundation of a career that can benefit you for the rest of your life.
Learning die design will be more simply and easily accomplished then because you will understand the relationship between the tool, that is the die with its various components, and the drive, that is the press which operates the die to produce stampings.
In this section you will also learn about the various accessories employed in conjunction with presses in order to make up complete press lines.
Gap-Frame Presses 2. Straight-Sided Presses 3. Four-Post Presses 4. Underdrive Presses S. Super High Speed Presses. Each type, in turn, contains a number of sub-types in a bewildering variety of sizes and shapes. Cast construction and welded construction. Smaller presses are usually cast. Large presses may be cast or they may be made of welded steel.
Manual - such presses are hand-operated or foot- operated 2. Mechanical - These presses are motor driven and they may have a flywheel, single reduction gear, or multiple reduction gear 3. Hydraulic - These may be oil-operated or water- operated. Pneumatic - Such presses are operated by com- pressed air. Drawing and forming dies must be run more slowly to allow time for the metal to flow.
Speeds range from 5 to strokes per minute, depending on part size and severity of the operation performed. They produce many thousands of different kinds of parts ranging from small instrument components to large appliance and automotive parts. Operations per- formed include blanking, trimming, bending, forming and drawing of cups and shells. Typical gop-frame press. They are used: When strips or sheets are fed from right" to left or from left to right 2.
When strips or sheets are fed from front to back 3. When individual blanks are inserted in the die for secondary operations. Gap-frame presses are built in capacities ranging from 1 to tons pressure. They may be: Inclinable 2. Non-inclinable 3. Single-action 4. Double-action 5. The frame of an inclinable gap-frame press may be tilted back to an angle of thirty degrees.
This permits finished workpieces to slide to the rear of the press upon completion. Single-action presses are provided with a single ram. They are used for blanking, bending, forming and other operations. Double-action presses contain an inner ram sliding within an outer ram.
They are used for severe forming and drawing operations. Back-geared presses are provided with gears for slowing the stroke and increasing the power. To enlarge your understanding of the gap-frame press, consider Fig. One revolution of the flywheel causes the ram to make a downward stroke and an up- ward stroke, thus completing one cycle.
Gearing increases the capacity of the press. Each press is composed of the followi ng elements: Frame Assembly B. Ram Assembly C. Crankshaft Assembly D. Back Gear Assembly geared presses E. Trip Assembly F. Reclining Mechanism inclinable presses. The view at B shows the frame assembly of a geared press. Frame 2 is provided with legs 14 fastened together with tie rods Bolster plate 9 is fastened to the table of the frame after holes have first been machined in it for passage of slugs and blanks.
At the upper portion of the frame, seats are machined for the crankshaft, and bearing caps 6 retain it in position. Following is a complete list of parts in the frame assembly. Locate each detail in the illustration to familiarize yourself with the names and shapes of machine parts: Frame Back gear type Bolster plate washer 2. Frame Flywheel type Bolster plate nut 3. Bronze bushing Leg bolt 4. Bushing screw Leg 5. Felt pad Leg tie rod 6. Bearing cap Tie rod nut 7. Bearing cap oil cup Leg 8.
Bearing cap screw Leg bolt nut 9. Bolster plate Leg capscrew. Exploded views of the frame of a flywheel press A and of a geared press B. The ram 27 is the working member of the press and it is important that you understand its construction thoroughly be- cause it can affect the design of many parts of the die.
The ram is reciprocated up and down by a crank through pitman 6 while confined and guided in V- shaped gibs 17 and The gibs, in turn, are fastened to the press frame. Ram adjusting screw 11 is provided with a hardened ball end that engages the ball seat Both are confined in the ram by spanner nut 9 tightened with spanner wrench The threads of ram adjusting screw 11 engage a hole tapped in the bottom of pitman 6.
The pitman is slotted for clamping the ram adjusting screw with pitman clamp yoke 34 and nuts 7. Ram ad- justing screw 11, therefore, adjusts the position of the ram, raising it or lowering it as required. To make an adjustment, nuts 7 are loosened and ram adjusting screw 11 is turned with wrench 12 raising or lowering the ram depending on the direction in which the screw is turned.
Nuts 7 are then tightened to prevent further rotation of screw 11 when the press is operated. Clamp 26 fastens the shank of the die set for reciprocating the punch half of the die up and down. Two studs 25 are threaded into holes in the ram with a tight fit.
Turning nuts 23 then clamps the punch shank. The ram of the press exerts force to pierce, blank, or perform other operations. The magnitude of the force depends upon the rated capacity of the press. Capa- cities are specified in tons and the most commonly used presses range from one ton to tons. Exploded view of the ram assembly. Study the following list of names of parts and ac- tually look up each one iri the illustration to familiar- ize yourself with the construction of the ram assembly: Pitman oil cup.
Pitman cap screw 3. Pitman cap -l. Pitman felt pad -. Pitman bronze bushing 6. Pitman clamp yoke nut. Set screw 9. Ram ball nut: Spanner wrench: Ram adjusting screw: Adjusting screw wrench: Ram ball seat: Gib set screw: Gib oil cup: Gib, right hand: Washer Gib cap screw Knockout bracket, right hand Knockout bracket screw Ram clamp stud nut Ram clamp stud washer Ram clamp stud Ram clamp Ram Knockout bracket, left hand Knockout bar clip Knockout bar Knockout bar spring Knockout bar spring clip Gib, left hand Pitman clamp yoke Pitman bushing fastener 23 At one end a brake drum 26 is engaged by brake shoes 30 and The braking action stops the shaft quickly when clutch pin 21 is disengaged from the driving flywheel An electric motor is mounted on motor bracket 57 or Sheave 52 is keyed to the the motor shaft and it drives the flywheel through V- belts Study carefully the manner in which bearings are applied, construction of the brake, and the way in which clutch components go together.
As you go through the following list of parts, study each in turn in the illustration until your understanding of the crankshaft assembly is complete: Brake release cam stud 2.
Brake release cam 3. Brake release cam lever 4. Taper pin S. Cam lever screw 6. Brake release shaft 7. Brake band set screw 8. Jam nut 9. Cam stud nut Cam lever nut Brake band set screw Jam nut Trip latch stud taper pin Trip latch stud Frame bushing Brake release shaft Non-repeat cam screw Non-repeat cam Crankshaft ring Clutch pin Clutch pin spring Clutch pin safety st op assembly Clutch pin spring support Crankshaft Brake drum Brake spring Brake handwheel Brake band, lower Brake lining Brake lining rivet Hinge pin lock ring Hinge pin Brake band, upper Brake screw; upper Brake band adjusting screw Flywheel hub cap Hub cap screw Crankshaft end plate screw Crankshaft end plate Bearing cone Bearing cup Flywheel bearing spacer Flywheel Flywheel backup pin Flywheel drive pin Alemite fitting Bull gear guard SO.
Flywheel guard Tight pulley guard Motor sheave V belt Motor bracket hinge rod Motor bracket adjusting screw Adjusting screw washer Motor bracket Flywheel type Motor bracket Back gear type Motor bracket set screw. This occurs because the flywheel 26 is not mounted directly on the crankshaft for driving the ram.
Instead it is positioned to the rear of the crankshaft and keyed to back gear shaft 23 by means of key At the other end of this shaft is keyed pinion 4 which drives the bull gear 5 mounted directly on the crankshaft.
A back geared press operates at a slower speed. Pinion 4 makes a number of revolutions for each revolution of gear 5. Following is a list of the parts in the back gear assembly: Exploded view of the crankshaft assembly.
Bull gear backup pin Bearing cone 2. Bull gear drive pin Spacer ring 3. Back gear pinion key Adapter 4. Back gear pinion Large piston ring 5. Bull gear Small piston ring 6.
Adjustment nut 7. Adapter nut 8. Bearing spacer Lock washer 9. Back gear shaft Tight pulley key screw Bull gear hub cap Tight pulley Back gear shaft end plate Unit housing End plate screw Adapter nut spanner wrench. Essentially it consists of the trip pedal 33 which oper- ates the latch 25 - 26 through trip rod When the operator 'depresses the trip pedal with his foot, the press will operate continuously as long as the pedal is kept down.
For a single stroke of the ram, the pedal is depressed and quickly released. The clutch pin will then engage the flywheel to turn the crank a single revolution after which it becomes disengaged to s tot: Study the following list of names of parts the trip assembly and compare with the views in e illustration: Latch stud Latch spring 2.
Latch bracket Latch spring guide 3.
Latch bracket screw, upper Latch Flywheel type 4. Latch bracket screw, lower Latch Back gear t ype 5. Fulcrum lock screw Latch roller stud washer 6. Latch trip bar fulcrum lock Latch roller stud nut 7. Fulcrum lock spring 8. Latch release lever spring 9. Release lever spring guide Spring guide ball roller Roller nut Roller washer Non-repeat release lever roller assembly Non-repeat release lever Latch roller Latch roller stud Trip rod swivel set screw Latch trip bar stud Latch trip bar Trip rod swivel spacer Trip rod swivel Trip rod Latch spring guide bushing lock Latch spring guide bus Fulcrum set screw Latch trip bar fulcrum Trip pedal Trip rod clip Trip pedal screw Trip pedal spring guide clip Trip pedal spring guide Trip pedal spring Spring guide washer Spring gui de jam nut Trip pedal guide set screw Trip pedal guide.
Exploded view of the back gear assembly. Exploded view of the trip assembly. Fede ral Pres s Co. This is necessary for some operations when an upper knockout is incorpora- ted in the die. The ejected part then slides to the rear of the press by gravity. One type of reclining mechan- ism consists of the cast bracket 1 engaged by reclining screw 2 which is threaded into the gear 3.
Reclining lever 4 engages one of the notches in pinion 7 to tum it, and this rotates gear 3 moving the reclining screw 2 laterally. The frame is either raised or lowered depend- ing on the direction in which pinion 7 is turned by lever 4. In another type of reclining mechanism shown at the lower right, a worm 11 turned by worm shaft 9 inclines the frame. Larger presses may be reclined by a hy- draulic mechanism.
Following are the names of parts that comprise the reclining mechanism: Reclining bracket 4. Reclining lever 2. Reclining s crew 5. Reclining lever bracket 3. Reclining gear nut 6. Exploded view of the reclining mechanism.
Reclining pinion Reclining worm 8.
Reclining wor m shaft clip Reclining bracket 9. Reclining worm shaft Bracket screw. Typical large gap-frame press. The illustration shows an inclinable 75 ton Niagara gap-frame press. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Perfect before weddings, parties, reunions, etc. In order to set up a list of libraries that you have access to, you must first login or sign up.
Language English View all editions Prev Next edition 3 of 3. Simple Workshop Devices Tubal Cain. It divides the design of each die into die design fundamentals paquin series of easy-to-follow steps and illustrates fundametnals step in pictorial view and as a die design fundamentals paquin of an engineering drawing. Handbook of Print Media Helmut Kipphan. How pquin apply fasteners Ch. Basic Diemaking Eugene Ostergaard.
Fundamentals of Tool Design John Nee. Login to add to list. I know, I know. None of your libraries hold this item. Public Die design fundamentals paquin login e. Applications to Manufacturing Processes Nagata.